Your answer for each question should be a minimum of 150 words (half page), include
recent reference utilized.
1. What were the historical scientific breakthroughs that led to our current understanding of
viruses, viroids, and prions?
2. How do viruses, viroids, prions, and bacteria differ in terms of their biological identity and
method of infection?
3. What are the chemical and physical properties and the lytic/latent cycles of animal and
4. How can viruses lead to cancer? Be sure to use specific examples (e.g. virus name and
the cancer it causes) to illustrate your points.
5. 8. What are the distinguishing characteristics of lichens with regard to their nutritional
needs, and what are the roles of the fungus and the alga that make up lichens?
6. 9. Describe the physiological characteristics that differentiate the eleven major phyla
present in the Domain Bacteria and discuss the importance to humans or the
environment of representative member genera from each of these phyla.
7. 10. What is the Bergey’s Manual, and how is it used as a tool in the classification or
identification of bacteria?
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