Form A Exam 2 Fall 2012
1. Which form of the exam do you have?
2. The most serious reason that aneurysms are dangerous is because they
A. can be repaired, but it requires surgery
B. can burst, causing fatal blood loss
C. stretch an artery wall
D. cause blood flow to be redirected
3. Breast-feeding blocks ovulation for at least the first several months. Based on what you know
about the relationship between estrogen and breast cancer, how would you predict the risk of
breast cancer would be altered in a woman who breast-fed her two children, each for a prolonged
period of time?
A. Her risk would be decreased.
B. Her risk would be increased.
C. It would have no effect on her risk of breast cancer.
4. Of the following means of birth control, which has the HIGHEST FAILURE RATE when
used properly but with no additional means of contraception:
A. the minipill
B. spermicidal jelly
C. a diaphragm
D. the IUD
E. a condom
5. High blood pressure is called the “silent killer” because it rarely causes symptoms, but can
lead to death. Which of the following health problems can be caused by high blood pressure?
1. Thrombophlebitis (blood clot)
3. Kidney damage
4. Breast cancer
A. 1, 2, & 3
B. 2, 3, & 4
C. 3, 4, &5
D. 1, 3, & 5
E. 2, 3, & 5
6. Choose the INCORRECT statement.
A. An oncogene slows cell division
B. A mutant tumor suppressor gene no longer slows cell division
C. Several mutations are usually required before a cell becomes cancerous.
D. Telomerase is found in many cancer cells
7. Choose the INCORRECT statement about osteoporosis:
A. Osteoporosis is a condition in which the bones become weaker.
B. Osteoporosis is more likely to occur in women who have reached menopause
C. Osteoporosis is a common cause of hip fractures
D. Ways of reducing one’s risk of osteoporosis later is life are to eat plenty of foods that
are high in calcium, take calcium supplements and get plenty of weight-bearing exercise (such as
E. PTH (parathyroid hormone) is a good treatment for osteoporosis
8. The hormones ____________ and _____________ promote bone formation (bone density):
A. estrogen, calcitonin
B. calcitonin, parathyroid hormone
C. parathyroid hormone, estrogen
D. FSH, parathyroid hormone
E. none of the above
9. Choose the CORRECT statement
A. In the jargon of those interested in contraception, a failure rate of 1% for a particular
method means that each time you have intercourse using that method, you have a 1 in 100
chance of getting pregnant.
B. One would expect that the typical use would come closer to perfect use for the vaginal
ring (NuvaRing) than for the birth control pill.
C. The condom provides absolutely perfect protection against the spread of STDs.
D. all of the above
10. A 20-year-old female friend of yours detects a single, small, freely moveable lump in her
breast. Knowing that you are taking a course in human biology, she asks you what it could be.
An appropriate response would be:
A. It could be a fibroadenoma.
B. It is probably fibrocystic breast disease.
C. It is probably breast cancer. It is a good thing you do monthly self-exams and caught it
D. Are you about to get your period? It is probably due to premenstrual tenderness.
11. Which of the following choices includes only birth control methods that are thought to offer
some protection against sexually transmitted diseases (for either partner)?
A. cervical cap, spermicides, the rhythm method
B. female condom, hormonal implant, diaphragm
C. Depo-Provera, condom, diaphragm
D. diaphragm, the birth control pill, IUD
E. male condom, female condom, diaphragm
12. Last summer you won the lottery!! When you heard the news, you did a little dance of joy,
tripped, and broke your leg. After being on crutches for 4 months, what would you expect would
happen to the bone density in the formerly broken leg?
A. The bone would be less dense.
B. The bone density would be the same as before the break.
C. The bone density would be increased, because it was given a rest for several months.
13. A female friend of yours is using the combination birth control pill and smokes cigarettes.
You wisely suggest that she quit smoking if she wants to stay on the pill because:
A. cigarette smoke reduces the effectiveness of the pill
B. both cigarette smoke and the combination birth control pill can increase blood pressure
C. they interact to cause liver cancer
D. they interact to increase the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease
14. Indicate the choice that contains only true risk factors for breast cancer that can be changed.
3. Alcohol consumption
4. Age at puberty
5. Testosterone level
A. 1 & 2
B. 2 & 3
C. 3 & 4
D. 4 & 5
E. 3 & 5
15. Indicate the choice that contains only CORRECT statements about the ways that cancer cells
escape the normal controls on cell division.
1. Tumor-suppressor genes mutate, causing them to excessively stimulate cell division.
2. Mutant genes destroy the molecules (break the anchors) that glue cells to a surface,
while still signaling the nucleus that the cell is anchored.
3. Unlike healthy cells, cancer cells continue to produce telomerase, the enzyme that
4. Mutant genes in cancer cells trigger programmed cell death in neighboring healthy
A. 1 & 2
B. 2 & 3
C. 3 & 4
D. 1 & 4
E. 2 & 4
16. New blood vessel formation is important in cancer for all of the following reasons EXCEPT:
A. Blood vessels bring nutrients to the rapidly dividing cancer cells
B. Blood vessels bring new telomeres to the cancer cells so they can continue dividing
C. Blood vessels provide a pathway through which the cancer cells can spread to new
D. Blood vessels remove waste products from the cancer cells
17. All of the following are characteristics of normal, healthy cells EXCEPT.
A. Damage to DNA (genetic information) is usually repaired.
B. Programmed cell death is triggered if too much DNA damage accumulates.
C. The cells divide indefinitely.
D. Cells are anchored together by cell adhesion molecules (CAMs).
18. Cigarette smoke contains a chemical that specifically mutates p53 and inactivates it. As a
result of this mutation, what would happen in the affected cells?
A. DNA damage would accumulate.
B. Programmed cell death would not be activated.
C. The cell cycle would continue in spite of DNA damage.
D. All of the above.
E. None of the above.
19 Obesity is correlated with an increased risk of developing breast cancer in women. The most
reasonable conclusion based on this relationship is:
A. switch to a very low fat diet.
B. move to Japan, where breast cancer rates are lower.
C. exercise regularly and manage your weight
20. Indicate the choice that contains only CORRECT statements:
1. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are tumor suppressor genes
2. Mutated BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes greatly increase a woman’s risk of breast cancer
3. BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes stimulate estrogen release
4. BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes stimulate metastasis
A. 1 & 2
B. 2 & 3
C. 3 & 4
D. 1 & 4
E. 2 & 4
21. Your friend Kayla is using the birth control pill as a means of contraception. Her husband
has had to take a temporary job out of town and they miss one another terribly. She got food
poisoning and spent the three days before Columbus Day weekend vomiting and having diarrhea.
Her husband came home for the long weekend. It was a very romantic, sexual weeken
d. Now it
is the first of November and her period is late. The BEST advice you can give her is:
A. You took your pill properly — same time every day — so there is almost no chance you
could be pregnant.
B. The food poisoning probably threw off your menstrual cycle. You should get your
period any day now.
C. Better get a pregnancy test.
D. Your period is probably late because of pelvic inflammatory disease.
22. How do they determine whether breast cancer has spread beyond the breast?
A. a mammogram
B. breast self-exam
C. examining the sentinel nodes
23 . . Which person would be expected to have the most dense bones?
A. Rosa, a 60-year-old accountant who works at a computer all day.
B. Jamal, a 30-year-old African American mail carrier in New York City who walks to
deliver the mail.
C. Cissie, my husband’s 103 year old great aunt who lives in Manhattan
D. Jinyan, an “average” female Asian high school senior
24. Heart tissue is nourished by:
A. the thrombus
B. the blood passing through the chambers of the heart
D. blood in the coronary blood vessels (i.e. through the coronary arteries to capillaries)
E. all of the above
25. Most breast cancer begins in the:
B. lymph nodes
C. milk ducts
D. fatty tissue
26. Estrogen is considered to be a carcinogen because it:
A. causes mutations
B. stimulates the immune system
C. breaks cell adhesion molecules
D. stimulates cell division
27 In healthy cells, following each cell cycle,
A. telomerase is produced
B. telomeres get longer
C. telomeres get shorter
D. cell adhesion molecules are destroy
Use the diagram to the left to
answer this question.
28. To go from stage 1 to stage 2
in the diagram of cancer
development, which of the
following events would have to
A. Telomerase would have
to be produced.
B. Genes regulating the
cell cycle would have
C. Cell anchors (cell
would have to be
D. Programmed cell death
would have to occur.
E. A blood supply would
have to be attracted.
29. The event shown as stage 3 in
the diagram of cancer development
is important because:
A. It prevents contact
B. It causes mutations in
cell cycle genes.
C. It causes the breakdown
D. None of the above.
30. In order for the process shown
as stage 4 in the diagram of cancer
development to take place, a
cancer cell must:
A. increase the quantity of
cell adhesion molecules that
anchor it in place
B. send a false message to
the nucleus saying that the cell is
still properly attached to
C. block estrogen receptors
D. break its telomeres
E. produce telomerase