What happened to the food coloring on each slice of bread?
without the butter:
with the butter:
Which slice of bread was the control? Explain.
If the slice of bread represents a part of your body that needs protection,
what does the butter represent? Explain.
Observe and record your results:
How were your results similar to or different from the bread and butter
What happened to the antacid pieces when placed in the vinegar?
Based on the results of your experiment with the vinegar, what do you think
would happen to bacteria that enter the stomach with your food?
What action of the digestive system was simulated when you broke the antacid
tablet into pieces?
What does the pepper represent?
Observe and record your results.
What was the effect of the petroleum jelly?
What body substance is simulated by the petroleum jelly?
Which is the most probable direction the cilia would transport the trapped
If trapped particulates wind up in the mouth and are swallowed, what happens to
Nicotine in cigarette smoke paralyzes the cilia in the trachea and other
respiratory passages. Considering the results of your simulation, what effect
would this have on a smoker’s lungs? Explain.
Non-specific defenses, #1-9
A ______________ is an example of a white blood cell that consumes and destroys
foreign organisms in the bloodstream.
This immune system protein helps slow the spread of a viral infection within
your body. _____________________
Anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin, acetaminophen, and ibuprofen reduce
fever and pain. Therefore, the drugs probably inhibit the production of which
two types of immune system chemicals? _________________ and ___________________
When you cut yourself, _____________ cells release ________________, which
starts the inflammatory response.
When you’re fighting infection, __________________ cells release
_______________ to destroy the cell membranes of the pathogens.
One type of protein that produces a chemical “trail” that macrophages can
follow to the site of an infection: __________________
Tamiflu, and anti-flu medication, inhibits viral reproduction. Which immune
system chemical is it mimicking? ___________________
You’re hanging a picture in your house and you accidentally hit your thumb with
the hammer. Your thumb becomes swollen, red, and painful. As a biology student,
explain which immune system actions caused each of your symptoms. Be specific.
Normal body temperature for a healthy person is approximately 37°C. If your
body temperature was 38°C, would it be beneficial to take aspirin or some other
medication that reduces fever? Explain your answer.
Antibody/antigen specificity, #1-7
How many antigens could you disable before the time expired?
1 results: _____ antigens disabled.
Try again and see if you can improve your speed and accuracy.
2 results: _____ antigens disabled.
When matching the antibodies to the antigens, what clues did you use to make
the correct matches?
Did you make any mistakes matching the antibodies to the antigens? What types
of errors did you make (for example, visual identification, mouse error, etc.)?
Can your previously formed antibodies protect you against the risk of a
tuberculosis infection? Why or why not?
What immune system malfunction could occur as a result of the similarity? Could
the malfunction cause any problems in your body?