– How can gene regulation account for some of the phenotypic differences between organisms with similar genes?
-Explain how interactions between external stimuli and gene expression result in specialization of cells, tissues and organs. Include two specific examples.
-In Drosophila, development occurs as a result of the sequential expression of a variety of genes. Many of these are genes for transcription factors. The basic sequence or flow of development can be outlined as shown below:
– Maternal effects genes (for example, bicoid)
– Gap genes
– Pair-rule genes
– Segment polarity genes
– Homeotic genes (or homeobox, Hox, genes)
– Master regulatory genes (for example, myoD)
-What does each type of gene control in the development of the fruit fly?
– Based on your answers to the question above, if you wanted to produce a mutation that caused profound effects (drastic effects) on the overall development of the organism, where in the sequence would you introduce the mutation? Explain your answer.
– What phenotype change(s) might you see if a developing fruit fly had a mutation in a gap gene? In a segment polarity gene?
-Explain how each of the following techniques is applied in our study of heredity and genetic engineering:
– Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
– Plasmid-based transformation
– Restriction enzyme analysis of DNA
– Describe the benefits (pros) and risks (cons) in each of these products of genetic engineering:
– Genetically modified foods
– Transgenic animals
– Cloned animals
– Pharmaceuticals, such as human insulin or factor X