Q1, 2 and 4 need better structure. some information is there but
not put tother properly. Re-submit by making changes if you
understand what I am talking about if not,see me before you do it.
Q1. Compare and contrast a bacterium with an animal cell
based on their structure and function.
A cell membrane, usually surrounded by a cell wall and sometimes by an additional
An internal cytoplasm with ribosomes, a nuclear region, and in some cases granules
External structures, such as capsules, flagella, and pili.
In general, cells (which include prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells) have a main purpose:
to survive. In eukaryotic cells, their shapes often reflect their functions. For example,
nerve cells have long extensions that reach out in various directions in order to allow the
cell to send and receive nerve impulses. Another example is skin cells. Since skin cells
are flat and plate-like, they help cover and protect the surface of the body. As organisms
evolve into more advanced organisms, their cells become more specialized and
eventually were unable to survive independently. Groups of cells that carry out a similar
function is called a tissue. Groups of tissues that perform a particular job form an organ.
Groups of organs that perform related tasks form organ systems. Finally, groups of
organ systems combine to form an organism.
In other words, prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells try to keep the organism alive.
Q2. What is bacterial metabolism? List differences between
anabolism and catabolism
microorganisms capture energy, and obtain carbon, can be classified as
autotrophy self-feeding use carbon dioxide (inorganic) to
synthesize organic molecules.
Photoautotrophs: energy from light
Chemoautotrophs: energy from oxidizing simple inorganic
substances such as sulfides and nitrites.
heterotrophy other-feeding get their carbon from ready-made organic molecules,
which they obtain from other organisms, living or dead.
Photoheterotrophs: chemical energy from light
Chemoheterotrophs: chemical energy from breaking down ready-made organic
Metabolism: is the sum of all the chemical processes carried out by living organisms
Anabolism: requires energy to synthesize complex molecules from simpler ones.
Catabolism: release energy by breaking complex molecules into simpler ones.
Q4. Cell membrane is a selective barrier. Describe different
mechanism of transport across cell membranes in bacteria.
The mechanisms by which substances move across membranes can be passive or
passive transport: no energy required to move substances down a higher to lower
active processes: called active transport: the cell expends energy from ATP, enabling
it to transport substances against a concentration gradient.